Grammar 101: Back to the Basics of Writing

Do you remember the grammar, punctuation, or sentence structure rules from high school? As writers, we should ingrain the basics of writing in our memories. But, it is a lot to remember so I’ve decided to create a database of information that will be handy for everyone to reference.

Language is wild, but we have some tips to help you tame it. Review the basics of writing with us!

But first, we need to start at the beginning and define grammar.

Grammar is a set of rules that dictate the construction of languages. It’s all about putting words in the right order and making sure they fit together. Good grammar helps us get our point across when we write.

Why is Grammar Important?

Grammar is important because it is key for effective communication. 

Look at the difference missing an Oxford comma can make:

I want to thank my parents, Marge and Elvis Presley.

I want to thank my parents, Marge, and Elvis Presley.

In the first example, it sounds like they are thanking two people and with the comma is sounds like three people.

Here are some key reasons grammar matters:

1. Clarity and Precision

By structuring sentences logically and coherently. It reduces the risk of ambiguity or misunderstanding, as it helps in conveying ideas clearly and accurately.

2. Effective Communication

Grammar rules provide a common framework for people to express their thoughts and ideas. When everyone follows the same rules, communication becomes smoother and more efficient.

3. Professionalism

In formal writing and professional settings, using correct grammar enhances your credibility and professionalism. Well-structured sentences show that you take your communication seriously.

4. Academic Success

In educational contexts, proper grammar is essential for writing essays, research papers, and assignments. Good grammar can influence your grades and the overall quality of your work.

5. Language Fluency

Understanding and using proper grammar contributes to your overall language fluency. It enables you to engage in conversations, express yourself effectively, and understand others.

6. Writing Skills

Good grammar is a fundamental aspect of writing. It helps you construct well-organized paragraphs and essays that flow smoothly and coherently.

7. Preserving Intent

Correct grammar ensures that your intended meaning is accurately conveyed. Misplaced words or incorrect sentence structures can alter the message you want to share.

8. A Clear Expression of Ideas

Proper grammar allows you to structure your ideas logically. It enables you to present arguments, provide evidence, and draw conclusions coherently.

9. Enhancing Reading Skills

Grammar = improved reading skills. This helps you understand sentence structures, see how words are related, and get the author’s message.

10. Language Proficiency Tests

Many standardized tests, such as language proficiency exams, assess your grammar skills. A strong grasp of grammar can improve your performance on such tests.

11. Job Opportunities

In many professional fields, clear and accurate communication is crucial. Proper grammar skills can give you an edge in job interviews, written correspondence, and presentations.

12. Cultural Sensitivity

For non-native speakers, learning the grammar of a language can foster cultural sensitivity and integration, as it helps avoid unintentional communication errors.

While some might argue that language can still be understood even with incorrect grammar, adhering to proper grammar rules demonstrates respect for the language and for the readers or listeners with whom you are communicating. Overall, grammar plays a foundational role in effective communication across various contexts.

Related Reading:

Grammar and Languages

Every language on earth has restrictions on how words must be put together to construct a sentence. All languages have rules for asking questions, inviting responses, giving commands, or stating facts.

♦ In English, sentences must have swords in the order of subject-verb-object. In “Whales eat plankton,” whales is the subject, eat is the verb, and the object is “plankton.”
♦ In Japanese, sentences allow the words to be in several orders. Of course, the normal sequence is subject-object-verb.
♦ In the Irish language, the order is verb-subject-object.
♦ You may have noted that even if the language allows several orders of the phrases in the sentence, there is still a system that regulates the choice.
♦ English, Swahili, and Thai have similar word orders, even if they are totally unrelated.
♦ Sentences in Maori, Irish, Masai, and ancient Egyptian are remarkably similar, too.
♦ German and Eskimo languages permit more complex word-building than English. Others like the Chinese and Vietnamese do not.

What Does Grammar Include?

Grammatical rules cover various aspects of language, including:


Syntax is all about combining words and phrases to make sentences. Making sentences that work means putting words in the right order. Syntax is just the way we structure sentences. It decides which words go where and how they’re connected.

Syntax is super important for getting your message across. It makes it easier to put our thoughts into words and express complex ideas, ask questions, and give commands.

Some key aspects of syntax include:

♦ Word Order
♦ Phrases and Clauses
♦ Modifiers
♦ Agreement
♦ Punctuation
♦ Sentence Types
♦ Complex Sentences
♦ Parallelism
♦ Inversion

Overall, syntax helps us organize words and communicate effectively.


Morphology deals with the structure and form of words. It focuses on the smallest units of meaning in a language known as morphemes. Morphemes are the building blocks of words and carry semantic (meaningful) or grammatical information. Morphology involves the study of how morphemes combine to create words, as well as the rules that guide these combinations.

There are two main types of morphemes.

Free Morphemes can be words all by themselves. For example, the morpheme “book” is a free morpheme.
Bound Morphemes don’t work alone, they need a free morpheme to tag along. For example, in the word “unhappiness,” both “un-” and “-ness” are bound morphemes.

Some key aspects of morphology include:

♦ Affixes
♦ Inflectional Morphemes
♦ Derivational Morphemes
♦ Stem
♦ Compounding
♦ Reduplication
♦ Suppletion

So, morphology is important if you want to get how words are built, what they mean, and how you can play with them to create new ways to express yourself in a language.

Parts of Speech

We categorize words into different parts of speech based on their grammatical functions. Common parts of speech include:

♦ Noun
♦ Pronoun
♦ Verb
♦ Adjective
♦ Adverb
♦ Preposition
♦ Conjunction
♦ Interjection
♦ Article

These are the foundation of sentences. They’ve got their own jobs to make everything work.

Sentence Structure

Sentence structure refers to the organization of a sentence to convey meaning and express ideas clearly. It’s how you put all the parts of a sentence together – like the who, what, and how – to make it make sense. There are different components and patterns that contribute to sentence structure:

♦ Subject and Predicate
♦ Subject-Verb Agreement
♦ Direct Object and Indirect Object
♦ Modifiers
♦ Clauses and Phrases
♦ Sentence Types
♦ Complex Sentences

A grasp of sentence structure guarantees clear and effective communication


Grammatical agreement involves ensuring that the elements in a sentence, such as subjects and verbs, agree in terms of number, person, and gender. It involves ensuring that different parts of a sentence correspond and “agree” with each other according to the rules of a language.

♦ Number Agreement
♦ Person Agreement
♦ Gender Agreement
♦ Case Agreement
♦ Adjective-Noun Agreement
♦ Pronouns

When you keep things consistent in a sentence, it helps make sure the information is clear and easy to understand. But every language has its own rules, so it’s super important to know the agreement patterns for each one.


Tense refers to the grammatical category that indicates the time at which an action or event takes place. It is used to express whether an action is happening in the past, present, or future. Different languages may have different tenses and ways of expressing them. Common tenses include:

♦ Past Tense
♦ Present Tense
♦ Future Tense

Using the right tense helps us understand when things happen.


Aspect refers to the way we view an action or event in terms of its internal structure, duration, and completion. It provides additional information about how the action unfolds over time.

There are two primary aspects

♦ Simple Aspect
♦ Progressive Aspect

Besides simple and progressive aspects, some languages also have perfect and perfect progressive aspects to tell if an action was done before a certain point in time.

Using the right tense and aspect helps us understand when and how things happen.


Punctuation is crucial for clarity and organization in writing, although it is not exactly the same as syntax and morphology.

Punctuation is the marks we use in writing to help us understand things better. They tell us when to take a breath, make the important bits stand out, and organize our writing; which is crucial for clear communication. Here are some common punctuation marks:

♦ Period (.)
♦ Question Mark (?)
♦ Exclamation Mark (!)
♦ Comma (,)
♦ Semicolon (;)
♦ Colon (:)
♦ Hyphen (-)
♦ Dash (— or -)
♦ Quotation Marks (“”)
♦ Parentheses (())
♦ Ellipsis (…)

Writing is easier to understand when you use correct punctuation. Don’t forget to use the right punctuation for the language and style you’re writing in.

Last Words on the Basics of Writing

Whew!!! That is a lot. But don’t worry because in the upcoming weeks, we will dive into each element and break everything down so it is easy to understand.

You can’t communicate effectively without proper grammar. Using proper grammar makes your message clear and accurate, avoids confusion, and makes your writing or speaking easier to understand.

Take Care


Feature Image by Anne Karakash from Pixabay



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